The Troposphere is the lowest sphere, and it is where we are. It is 33,000 feet! Planes fly here and many other things do. Even mount Everest is not as high. Some jets, such as military planes can go high that they can go a little in to the stratosphere, which is the sphere above this one.
No Turbulence in this layer. This is the second layer away from earth! It has the famous ozone layer, that protects us from harmful UV rays that can cause skin cancer. It is also the reason for global warming, so say it has to much pollution from us and it is making holes for sun rays to go in. The bottom can be 120 kilometers. Some military jets can fly in this sphere.
This is the 3rd layer from earth, and it is also where meteors burn up before they reach our planet. The coldest it can get is: -226 Fahrenheit! there are planetary waves, gravitational waves, and very strong winds. There is a giant part of sodium In this layer.
The thermosphere is the biggest layer of all. It also contains the ionosphere, where radio waves are made for us on earth. The aurora borealis happens every 11 years, and it comes from the thermosphere when light interacts with some molecules and makes it happen. Some places you can see this is: Sweden, Alaska, Canada, Iceland, and Scotland. It can go up to 3,600 Fahrenheit!
This is the outermost layer and some get mixed up between space and this layer. Some say that the moon has an exosphere too, and it has some neon in it. The lower part of the exosphere is called the exobase. It is 10,000 kilometers. It is made of: Helium, Hydrogen, Atomic Oxygen, and Carbon Dioxide.
THE TWO MAIN GALAXIES:
There are two main galaxies we may know of, these two are commonly known. Their names are: The Milky Way, and The Andromeda galaxy. The Milky Way is our home, which contains, the galactic center, a spherical region called the halo, the globular cluster , the solar system, and more. People say that in four billion years these two galaxies will collide and it will be the end of earth, and these two galaxies. Sounds interesting? Huh? Well, let's learn about these galaxies. Galaxies can be irregular shaped, barred spiral shaped, spiral shaped, or elliptical shaped. Let's Go On!
The Milky Way
The Milky Way is the galaxy we are in. It includes the solar system, the crab nebula and some other cool things. The spot in the middle is called the galactic center. It also has the two main spiral arms. The Milky Way's spiral arms are: the perseus arm and the scutum-centaurus arm. Close to The center of the milky way is the globular cluster, with a ton of stars and clouds. In the center There is the galactic center which contains a super massive black hole!
The Big BANG!
The Big Bang is the start of our universe and world as many scientists say. Many people have different beliefs if this theory really happened or not. We will tell you the timeline and steps of the big bang.
Step 1: The Big Bang
It begins with a cataclysm that generates space, time, matter, and energy. It turns into a hot fireball. and boom! A strange form of energy makes universe we are in today, as many scientists say. This happened quickly, as in seconds!
Step 2: The universe begins to look like the universe!
After one millionth of a second after the big bang the universe continues to grow, but slower now. It cools as it gets bigger and bigger. It also becomes less dense. The universe is made of atoms, and other things smaller than atoms, called quarks. Inside quarks are strings, but it doesn't get any smaller than that. They then form protons and neutrons, which are the negative and positive parts of an atom. They soon make simple energies like hydrogen, but it will take thousands of years to make stable and the regular atoms that we have today.
Step 3: The Radiation Era
This era took about 300,00 years. Many types of radiation waves such as ultraviolet light stretch across the whole universe.
Step 4: Matter is distributed, and the stars form!
Soon Matter is distributed through the universe. 300,000 years later the universe continues to expand really big and stars and the earliest galaxies form. 12-15 billion years later we are living here in earth!